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Glossary

Access rights

Access rights determine what a user can do with a particular resource. Resources have default access rights that can be superseded by the access rights given to a user.

Account

An account is needed for each user in a workgroup. It is the means whereby a user who attempts to log in to a workgroup is recognized as a valid member of the workgroup.

Ambiguous filename

A filename that contains either of the wildcard characters ? or *. When you replace characters in a filename with these wildcard characters, you create an ambiguous filename and can easily reference more than one file in a single command.

Application

A piece of software used to carry out a particular task, like a word processor or graphics package.

ASCII

The American Standard Code for Information Interchange is a standard code for representing numbers, letters and symbols. An ASCII text file is a file that can be intelligibly displayed on the video screen or printed on paper.

AUTOEXEC.BAT

This is a configuration file which the operating system executes every time it is started. The easiest way to change the configuration parameters in the AUTOEXEC.BAT file is to use the SETUP program.

Backup

A copy of a file, directory, or disk made for safe keeping.

Batch file

A file containing a sequence of commands. When you type the name of the file at the command line, each command in the file is carried out in turn, just as if you had typed the commands individually. The filename becomes in effect a ``command'' in itself. Batch filenames can be up to eight characters in length, but must always have the extension .BAT.

Baud rate

The baud rate is the number of bits transmitted per second in serial communications.

Bernoulli drives

A cartridge drive system supplied by Iomega* Corporation. The Bernoulli* cartridges are high-capacity removable media.

Bit

A bit is the smallest unit of memory in a computer. Bits are electronic switches. They are given values to indicate whether they are switched on or off; 0 is off and 1 is on. Eight bits are equal to one byte, or character. See also Byte.

Buffer

An area of memory that temporarily stores data during information transfer.

Built-in command

See Internal command.

Byte

A unit of memory or disk storage usually used to represent one character. See also Bit.

Client

A computer that uses services, such as shared directories and printers, provided by other computers (servers) on the network.

Cluster

A group of contiguous sectors on a disk; a sector is the smallest unit of allocation for files on the disk.

Code page

A code page is a table stored in your computer which defines the particular character set required by a specific national language.

Code page switching

This is a mechanism the operating system uses to allow you to use the range of characters needed in a variety of national languages. Using it you can switch between the different character sets needed by differing languages.

Command

A short program designed for a specific task.

Command line

The command followed by any other relevant information given at one time to the computer, to enable it to carry out your instructions. The command line ends when you press the <Enter> key.

Communication port

A socket to which another computer may be attached usually via a cable, thus allowing the computers to communicate with each other.

CONFIG.SYS

A configuration file which the operating system executes every time it is started. It contains various commands used to set up your system for items like keyboard and country information. The easiest way to change the configuration parameters in the CONFIG.SYS file is to use the SETUP program.

Context

The context defines which part of the NetWare Directory Services(TM) tree is searched for users, servers, and resources.

Conventional memory

Memory below 640 KB, sometimes called base memory. It is generally where the operating system and applications are loaded. It is usually referred to as RAM (Random Access Memory).

Current directory

The current place on the disk where filenames are stored so that the operating system can find the files when needed. The current directory name is displayed on the command line if you add the command PROMPT $p$g to your AUTOEXEC.BAT file.

Current disk drive

The drive on which the operating system first looks for files. The current drive letter is usually displayed in the system prompt.

Cursor

A blinking line or block on the screen that indicates where your next keystroke will have an effect.

Data bits

Refers to the number of bits used to define a character on serial data transmission, usually 7 or 8. When connecting two computers together via the communication ports, it is important to set the same number at each end.

Default

A pre-set value used by a computer until it is specifically changed by a user.

Device

A device is a piece of hardware attached to a computer (usually a peripheral), for example a printer or mouse.

Device driver

Device drivers are programs that are loaded alongside the operating system to operate hardware devices which are not recognized as a default part of the system. Device drivers usually have the extension .SYS.

Directory

A place on a disk where filenames are stored so that the operating system can find the files when needed. Each disk can contain many directories.

Disk

Magnetic medium used for storing information.

Disk accelerator

See Disk cache.

Disk cache

A disk cache is an area of RAM memory used to store data accessed frequently from disk. If your applications want to access a disk for data, it can become time-consuming. To speed up the process of reading and writing data to and from disk, you can set up a cache. Whenever data is read from or written to disk, a check is made to see if a copy is in the cache first. If it is in the cache, the copy is used. Caches are very useful for increasing the performance of applications that have to access a lot of data from disk, like databases and spreadsheets.

Diskette

A disk that can be removed from the drive (also known as a floppy disk).

Disk operating system

A collection of programs that manages computer resources and other programs on a computer.

Drive

The device that holds and reads a hard disk or diskette.

EDIT

A program that allows you to create and edit ASCII text files.

EMM

Expanded Memory Manager; see Chapter 10, ``Managing Memory'' for information.

EMS

Expanded Memory Specification; see Chapter 10, ``Managing Memory'' for information.

Enter key

The key that tells the operating system to carry out a command. Also referred to as Return or óóø.

Environment

A source of information within the operating system used by all applications, often called the global environment. It is where the PATH, PROMPT and SET variables are stored.

Environment variables

Variables that define the current operating system environment, for example, the version number or search path.

Esc key

The key that usually allows you to exit a screen or process.

Executable

This means ``programs that can be run by the computer.'' Executable code is a series of instructions that can be carried out by the computer. Executable programs usually have the extension .EXE or .COM.

Expanded memory

Expanded memory is often known as LIM memory. The LIM EMS standard was jointly devised by Lotus*, Intel* and Microsoft*. EMS is the Expanded Memory Specification. It describes ways in which a program may access up to 32 MB of memory outside conventional memory. Programs that use expanded memory include spreadsheets, databases, and other programs that need access to large amounts of data. See Chapter 10, ``Managing Memory'' for more details.

Extended memory

Memory above 1 MB on 80286, 386* and i486*-based computers; see also Chapter 10, ``Managing Memory'' for information.

External command

Commands that are used less often than other commands, and so are not automatically loaded into memory. To save space they are stored on disk instead. They have the file extension .COM or .EXE. When you enter an external command, the operating system retrieves the ``command file'' from disk and runs it. The memory used by the command is freed when it has finished its work. See also Internal command.

File

A collection of related instructions or data stored on disk.

File Allocation Table (FAT)

The File Allocation Table is a kind of index which exists at the start of every disk, and is used by the operating system to locate entries for files.

FILELINK

A utility used to transfer files between two computers connected by their serial or communication ports.

Filelist

A list of filenames in a file. The file containing the filelist is identified by an @ character in front of its filename. Some commands that usually operate on only one file per command line can, by using a filelist, be made to operate on several files.

Filename and filename extension

The name assigned to a file. A filename can include a primary filename of 1 through 8 characters and an optional filename extension of 1 through 3 characters. A period (.) separates the filename from the filename extension.

Filespec

Short for file specification. The combination of drive letter, path, and filename that identifies a file uniquely to the operating system.

Fixed disk

See Hard disk.

Floppy disk

See Diskette.

Format

The process by which the operating system prepares a disk for use by writing electronic markers onto the disk, so that the system can store and retrieve files. FDISK is used to prepare partitionable disks for use. FORMAT is used to format disks and diskettes. When you format a disk, except in special circumstances (see the description of FORMAT in the ``Command Reference'' chapter of DOSBook), all the information previously stored on it is erased, so take care when using this command.

Gigabyte (Gbyte or GB)

A unit of storage in a computer denoting 1024 Mbytes. It is usually denoted as 1 Gbyte or 1 GB.

Hard disk

A disk for storing information that is not removable from the computer. It usually has large storage capacity and provides fast access to data.

Hexadecimal

Hexadecimal numbers are numbers in base 16. Hexadecimal uses the numbers 0-9 and A, B, C, D, E, F. The letters are equivalent to the numbers 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 in decimal (base 10). Hexadecimal numbers are used as a shorthand for binary.

High memory

The first 64 KB of extended memory.

Image file

A file used to store an image of a diskette; that is, an exact copy of the diskette's contents.

Input

Information going into the computer, usually from typing at the keyboard or from a program reading from disk.

I/O

Abbreviation for input/output.

Internal command

An operating system command that usually resides in memory. Internal commands respond quickly because they do not have to be loaded from disk.

IPXODI

Inter-Packet Exchange Open Data-Link Interface; adds transmission information to data being sent across the network. See Appendix C, ``NetWare DOS Requester'' for more details.

Kilobyte (Kbyte or KB)

1024 bytes, denoted as 1 Kbyte, 1 KB or 1 K. 32 Kilobytes equal 32 KB. 1024 KB equal 1 Megabyte (or MB), over one million bytes.

Label

A marker within a batch or CONFIG.SYS file. It is used to indicate the specific point that execution jumps to, following a GOSUB, GOTO, CHOICE, or SWITCH statement.

LIM

See Expanded memory.

Link driver

Also known as the LAN driver. Specific to the network board installed in the computer, it provides an interface between the network board and the rest of the operating system.

Logical drive

The operating system's internal representation of a drive. It may refer to an actual disk device, or to a group of directories specified using the SUBST command.

Lower memory

The lowest part of conventional memory, where the operating system and installable device drivers are commonly loaded.

LSL

Link Support Layer; serves as an intermediary between IPXODI and the link driver. See Appendix C, ``NetWare DOS Requester'' for more details.

Macro

A macro consists of a number of commands that are executed when the macro name is entered at the command line. The macro is lost when you reboot the computer.

Master key password

The password that the operating system prompts you for if security is enabled when you start the computer. The master key password controls access to the entire operating system.

Megabyte (Mbyte or MB)

A unit of storage in a computer denoting 1024 KB. It is usually denoted as 1 Mbyte or 1 MB.

Memory

Memory is where the computer stores data and programs. It is measured in bytes. One byte is equal to a group of eight bits. A bit is the smallest unit of memory in a computer. Each bit has the value 0 or 1. Memory is thought of in bytes because one byte of memory can be used to represent a character such as a, ?, or 4. One thousand and twenty-four bytes is equal to one kilobyte (KB). As computers contain a lot of memory, memory is usually talked about in terms of KB rather than bytes.

Memory disk

A portion of computer memory that is made to act like a very fast disk. You store your files on it in the same way as on a physical disk. Information stored on a memory disk is lost when the computer is switched off or when the operating system is restarted. Memory disks are therefore best used for temporary storage of expendable data. They are also referred to as RAM disks or virtual disks.

MIB

Management Information Base; a database containing information about the device on which it resides. It can be read by network management software running on another computer.

Modem

Modulator/Demodulator. A device which converts a digital signal from a computer into an analog signal which can then be transmitted down telephone lines and decoded by a modem at the receiving end.

Multitasking

The ability to run more than one application simultaneously and to switch between these applications while they continue to run.

NET.CFG

A configuration file that defines configuration options for such network components as the network board and the NetWare DOS Requester(TM) . It is read by the network drivers loaded when you run STARTNET.BAT. SETUP automatically creates or updates NET.CFG when you install the Novell DOS(TM) 7 network software.

NetWare Directory Services

NetWare Directory Services is a feature of NetWare(R) 4.x. It enables users and administrators to access any network service without needing to know the physical location of the server providing that service.

NetWare DOS Requester

DOS client software that intercepts and prepares requests for the transmission of data across the network.

Network

A network is two or more computers linked together by cables. The computers contain network boards and run network software to enable them to send and receive information.

One-time login

An operating system configuration, whereby the username and password input when you start the computer also log you into the network.

Operating system

See Disk operating system.

Output

Data that the computer sends to the console, disk, printer, or some other device.

Parallel

The carrying out of several tasks at the same time. For example in parallel communications, 8 bits of a byte would be transmitted together (see also Serial).

Parent directory

A parent directory is the directory immediately above the current one in the directory structure. The operating system uses the symbol .. to indicate the parent directory.

Parity

A means of checking that data has been transferred correctly, either between computers across a communications link, or between components inside a single computer, such as a disk and memory.

Partition

A partition is a section of a hard disk created by the FDISK disk preparation utility.

Password

A series of characters needed to gain access to a computer, file, directory, or network.

Path

The description of the route through the directory hierarchy to a subdirectory or file. A drive letter can also be included at the beginning of the path.

PC

An abbreviation for personal computer.

Peripheral

An external device connected to the computer. Peripherals are generally used for input and output. Examples include disks, modems, and printers.

Piping

The process where the output from one program is made to be the input for another.

Program

A series of specially coded instructions that perform a specific task when executed by a computer.

Prompt

The display on the screen that shows you that the operating system is ready to receive a command. The standard system prompt can be changed by using the PROMPT command.

RAM

Random Access Memory is a type of memory that is used to load and run programs from. It can be thought of as the computer's workspace. The more complex a task you want to do, the more RAM memory your computer needs. It is memory that can be read to, as well as written from, in any order. See also ROM and Shadow RAM.

RAM disk

See Memory disk.

Read-only (RO)

An attribute that can be assigned to a file or directory. When switched on, the read-only attribute allows you to read from the file but not to write any changes to it.

Real time

A system where execution depends on critical timing criteria. For example a system may be required to respond to some event within a given time.

Replacement variables

Variables in batch files that are replaced by the parameters you enter in the command line when you run the batch file.

RETURN

See Enter key.

ROM

Read-Only Memory. This is a type of memory which you can only read or copy; you cannot alter its contents. It is normally used to contain the computer's diagnostic programs, and a very basic input/output system (or BIOS).

Root directory

The main directory that the operating system creates on disk when the disk is formatted.

Route

A route determines which computers are accessible from yours across the network. A route has two parts separated by a colon; the network address and the machine address.

Router

A computer running software that manages the transfer of data between network cabling systems.

Scrolling

Scrolling means to move text up or down on a screen so that you can read it all.

SCSI

Small Computer System Interface; an industry-standard definition of the hardware and software needed for a host computer and a peripheral to communicate.

Serial

The carrying out of tasks one after the other. For example, in serial communications, each byte is transferred one bit at a time (see also Parallel).

Server

A computer that provides services, such as shared printers and directories, to other computers (clients) on a network.

Server manager

The server manager is a user who has the right to manage a Personal NetWare(TM) server and change its configuration. Server managers are named explicitly as one of the server properties.

Server owner

The server owner is the person who is in charge of the computer on which the Personal NetWare server is loaded. The server owner is named explicitly as one of the server properties.

Session

A session at your computer is the time between switching on and when you next switch off.

SETUP

A menu-driven program which allows you to change the standard system configuration.

Shadow RAM

RAM in upper memory into which data and code can be copied from ROM. The RAM is given the same addresses as the ROM, so that in effect shadows the ROM. The term Shadow RAM is used to describe any RAM in upper memory that can potentially be used for shadowing ROM.

SNMP

Simple Network Management Protocol; an industry-standard protocol for communicating with devices on the network to retrieve information about them.

Spooler

A print spooler provides a queueing system for files you want to print. This way files can be printed while your computer performs other tasks.

SPX

Sequenced Packet Exchange; a protocol within IPXODI that verifies that data has been successfully sent across the network.

STARTNET.BAT

A batch file that loads the network drivers. It is called by AUTOEXEC.BAT if you answer Y (for Yes) to the prompt which asks you if you want to load the network software.

Stop bits

A term used in serial data transfer to distinguish where one character starts and another stops; communication programs normally add one, or sometimes two, stop bits on the end of each character. Like data bits, it is important that the number of stop bits set up agrees at both ends of the line.

Strings

A sequence of characters, such as ``hello'' or ``arc132.''

Subdirectory

Any directory that is not the root directory on a disk can be called a subdirectory.

Switch

An option that modifies the way in which the computer carries out a command.

System prompt

The display on the screen that shows you the operating system is ready to receive a command. The standard system prompt can be changed by using the PROMPT command.

Task Manager

The Novell DOS program that manages multitasking and task switching.

Task switching

The ability to switch between applications. The application that you have switched to most recently is the only one that runs; tasks you have switched from are suspended in the background until you switch back to them.

TBMI2

Task-Switched Manager Buffer for IPX/SPX(TM) ; it enables IPX(TM) and SPX programs to work in a task switching environment.

Timeout

The operating system sets a time limit for response to a command, so it can detect if something is taking too long to respond (for example a printer may have inadvertently been switched off), and return an error message.

TSR (Terminate-and-Stay-Resident) program

A program that leaves some of its code in the computer's memory when you exit the program and return to the system prompt. Therefore it does not have to be reloaded from disk every time it is executed.

Upper memory

Memory located above the normal DOS limit of 640 KB and below the beginning of extended memory at 1024 KB (1 MB) that is addressable by 16-bit processors. Parts of this memory are reserved for DOS and BIOS functions.

Username

Each account has a username that the user of the account types in to log in to the network and uses to gain access to the network resources.

Utility

A program that enables you to perform certain operations such as copying, erasing, or editing files.

Variable

In batch files, a variable is a character that is substituted for a filename when the batch file is run.

Video memory

A special area of memory used by the hardware which operates the computer's display or monitor.

Virtual disk

See Memory disk.

Virtual Loadable Module (VLM)

A modular executable program with a group of logically-related features or APIs.

Virus

A program that attaches itself to a host program, and is activated when that host program runs. A virus often contains code that damages other data on the computer.

Volume label

The name given to a disk for identification. It is set by the LABEL command. You can display the volume label on a disk using the VOL command.

Wildcard characters

Special characters that match certain specified items; there are two wildcard characters, ? and *. The ? can be substituted for any single character in a filename or filename extension (or both) and the * can be substituted for one or more characters in the filename or filename extension, or both.

Wildspec

The same as filespec except that you can use wildcard characters in the command syntax to specify groups of files.

Workgroup

A group of users on a network who have information or resources that they wish to share among themselves. A workgroup must include at least one computer configured as a Personal NetWare server.

Workgroup administrator

A user given workgroup administrator privileges can change the way the workgroup and its resources are set up.

Write-protected

A write-protected disk, directory or file can be read but not altered or erased. Disks are write-protected physically, usually by the absence or presence of a notch on the diskette casing. Files are write-protected via the ATTRIB command (setting the read-only attribute), and files and directories can be write-protected via the PASSWORD command.

XMS

Extended Memory Specification, which defines a protocol that controls access to high, upper, and extended memory on Intel 80286, 386, and i486-based personal computers.


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